This section of the tutorial shows all the work that is needed to distribute operations in deap. Distribution relies on serialization of objects and serialization is usually done by pickling, thus all objects that are distributed (functions and arguments, e.g. individuals and parameters) must be pickleable.
Distributing tasks on multiple computers is taken care of by the distributed task manager module dtm. Its API similar to the multiprocessing module allows it to be very easy to use. In the last section a complete algorithm was exposed with the toolbox.map() left to the default map(). In order to parallelize the evaluation the operation to do is to replace this map with the one provided by the dtm module and tell to dtm which function is the main program here it is the main() function.
from deap import dtm toolbox.register("map", dtm.map) def main(): # My evolutionary algorithm pass if __name__ == "__main__": dtm.start(main)
That’s it. The map operation contained in the toolbox will now be parallel. The next time you run the algorithm, it will run on the number of cores specified to the mpirun command used to run the python script. The usual bash command to use dtm will be :
$ mpirun [options] python my_script.py
Using the multiprocessing module is exactly similar to using the distributed task manager. The only operation to do is to replace in the toolbox the appropriate function by the parallel one.
import multiprocessing pool = multiprocessing.Pool() toolbox.register("map", pool.map) # Continue on with the evolutionary algorithm
As stated in the multiprocessing guidelines, under Windows, a process pool must be protected in a if __name__ == "__main__" section because of the way processes are initialized.
While Python 2.6 is required for the multiprocessing module, the pickling of partial function is possible only since Python 2.7 (or 3.1), earlier version of Python may throw some strange errors when using partial function in the multiprocessing multiprocessing.Pool.map(). This may be avoided by creating local function outside of the toolbox (in Python version 2.6).
The pickling of lambda function is not yet available in Python.